Breast cancer is less likely to occur in women with high serum concentrations of carotenoids, such as lutein, lycopene, and beta-carotene.

This study examined the correlation between plasma levels of retinols, carotenoids, and tocopherols and the likelihood of developing breast cancer. Researchers analyzed the blood samples and estimated the relative risk of breast cancer of 295 healthy subjects and 295 breast cancer patients. They found lower concentrations of lutein, lycopene, total carotene, and beta-carotene in the blood of subjects suffering from breast cancer than in the serum of healthy subjects. The results of this study suggest that women with high serum concentrations of carotenoids are less prone to develop breast cancer.