Low serum concentrations of ALT, GGT, and hs-CRP and high plasma levels of GGT and hs-CRP are associated with high consumption of whole-grain bread and red meat respectively.
This study investigated the relationship between the consumption of red meat and whole-grain bread and biomarkers of obesity, inflammation, glucose metabolism, and oxidative stress. Using validated dietary questionnaires, researchers examined the red meat and whole-grain bread intakes of 2198 men and women recruited from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study. Relevant anthropometric variables and plasma levels of triglycerides, glycated hemoglobin, HDL-cholesterol, fetuin-A, adiponectin, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and hs-CRP were measured in all the subjects.
Researchers discovered low circulating levels of ALT, GGT, and hs-CRP in the blood of frequent consumers of whole-grain bread. On the other hand, subjects who regularly consumed large quantities of red meat had high plasma content of hs-CRP and GGT. Anthropometric variables, such as body mass index and waist circumference, were found to weaken the hs-CRP- and GGT-elevating activity of red meat in this study. The findings of this study show that while low serum concentrations ALT, GGT, and hs-CRP are associated with diets high in whole-grain bread, high intake of red meat may increase the circulating levels of GGT and hs-CRP in the blood.