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How robust is the association between smoking and depression in adults: a meta-analysis using linear mixed-effect models.

Cigarette smokers may be highly vulnerable to depression.

​The aim of this study was to assess the association between cigarette smoking and the likelihood of suffering from depression using a meta-analytic approach. A total of 85 studies were included in this meta-analysis. 

Data analysis revealed that depression was more likely to occur in current and former smokers than in never smokers. The findings of this study demonstrated a positive association between cigarette smoking and the occurrence of depression.

Research Summary Information

  • 2014
  • Luger TM, Suls J, Vander Weg MW.
  • Center for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research, 200 Springs Road, Building 70 (152), Bedford, MA 02117, USA. Electronic address: Tana.Luger2@va.gov. Behavioral Research Program, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address: jerry.suls@nih.gov. Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, E11 Seashore Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA; Comprehensive Access & Delivery Research and Evaluation Center, 601 Highway 6 West, Iowa City, IA 52246, USA; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Electronic address: mark-vanderweg@uiowa.edu.
  • No, Free full text of study was not found.
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