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Depressive symptoms and smoking in middle-aged and older women.

Cigarette smoking may heighten the risk of depression in middle-aged and older women.

​This research work investigated the smoking-depression connection hypothesis in middle-aged and older women. The smoking habits and incidence of depression among 90,627 US women were obtained through questionnaires and hospital records. 

Researchers observed that depression occurred with greater frequency in women who smoked cigarettes compared to never smokers. This meta-analysis reveals that cigarette smoking may facilitate the onset of depression in middle-aged and older women.

Research Summary Information

  • 2011
  • Holahan CK, Holahan CJ, Powers DA, Hayes RB, Marti CN, Ockene JK.
  • Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Austin, TX 78712, USA. c.holahan@mail.utexas.edu
  • Yes, Free full text of study was found:
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