Fried, grilled, and baked meats contain mutagens, such as heterocyclic amines (HCA).

Well-cooked meats produce heterocyclic amines (HCA), which are potent mutagens. This study examined the quantities and types of heterocyclic amines (PhlP, MelQx, and DiMelQx,) produced in meats prepared by cooking methods commonly use by U.S meat consumers. Researchers assessed the PhlP, MelQx, DiMelQx, and total HCA content in beef, chicken, pork, and fish prepared by pan frying, oven baking, and oven broiling.

Researchers discovered that the cooking method determined quantity and type of HCA found in meats. Well-cooked meats were observed to have 3.5 times higher total HCA content than medium –rare meats in this study. Fried bacon had the highest quantity of total HCA, followed by fried pork, fried beef, and fried chicken. The result of this study shows that harmful mutagens are found in grilled, fried, and baked meat products.