Obesity and insulin resistance may promote the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction.

This research work was carried out to determine the effect of obesity/insulin resistance on endothelial function. Researchers used euglycemic clamp and administered methacholine chloride and sodium nitroprusside via infusion to measure the insulin resistance and leg blood flow respectively in lean insulin sensitive (control group), obese insulin resistant (OB group), and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) subjects.

Researchers found out that the OB and NIDDM groups had 45 to 55% higher leg blood flow than the control group after intervention with methacholine chloride. This effect of methacholine chloride on leg blood flow was augumented only in the control group by euglycemic insulinemia. Sodium nitroprusside was observed to increase leg blood flow in all the groups in this study. The results of this study reveal that obesity and insulin resistance are associated with impaired endothelial function and elevated atherosclerosis risk.