Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in American women and the second leading cause of death. It's estimated that 1 in every 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer. Although there are many factors which contribute to cancer, Dr. Joel Fuhrman's article, Ten Strategies for Preventing Breast Cancer explains how we can help minimize our risk by controlling our environmental factors.
(1) Eat lots of green vegetables, mushrooms, and onions.
Dr. Fuhrman reminds us that green vegetables and mushrooms "are the most powerful anti-breast cancer foods." Vegetarian diets don't offer the dramatic protection against breast cancer as much as a diet rich in green vegetables, beans, onions, mushrooms, berries, and seeds (G-BOMBS). "It is the phytochemical nutrient density and diversity of the diet that offers the most dramatic protection against cancer, not merely the avoidance of meat or fat. Vegetables and fruits have been consistently associated with both reduced risk of breast cancer and improved survival of breast cancer patients. Cruciferous vegetables contain powerful anti-cancer compounds that halt the growth of breast cancer cells and promote excretion of estrogen. Mushrooms block tumor growth and have anti-estrogenic activity—regular consumption of mushrooms—as little as one mushroom per day—has been shown to decrease breast cancer risk by up to 60-70%. Organosulfur compounds in onions and garlic also prevent the development of cancers by detoxifying carcinogens, halting cancer cell growth, and preventing tumors from obtaining a blood supply."
(2) Use one tablespoon of ground flax or chia seed daily.
"Flax and chia seeds are the richest sources of lignans, phytochemicals with anti-estrogenic effects which also inhibit cell growth in breast tumors. In fact, in one notable study of women who were scheduled to have breast tumors removed, half ate a flax-containing muffin and the other half ate a control muffin daily, for 32-39 days until surgery. Their tumor tissue was analyzed, and even in this short timeframe, there was significant apoptosis (tumor cell death) and reduced cell proliferation of tumor cells in the flaxseed group."
(3) Reduce consumption of animal protein.
"Consuming more protein and especially dairy products raises blood levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and elevated IGF-1 levels have been associated with increased in breast cancer risk in many studies. Higher fish consumption in women has also been linked to higher rates of breast cancer. Agricultural and industrial carcinogens, such as dioxins, accumulate in fatty tissues. Humans' primary mode of exposure to these dangerous chemicals is from meat, poultry, fish, and dairy fat."
(4) Don't eat fried foods or well-done meats.
"Steaming, wokking, and making vegetable soups should be the major extent of cooking. High temperature dry cooking produces potentially carcinogenic compounds—acrylamide (formed in starchy foods like French fries) and heterocyclic amines (formed in meats). For example, chicken cooked at high temperatures is known to contain a heterocyclic amine called PhiP, which is a breast carcinogen."
(5) Choose supplements without synthetic folic acid.
If you take a multi-vitamin - "Make sure your multivitamin and other supplements do not contain folic acid. Also do not use nutritional yeast fortified with folic acid. Folic acid is found in most multivitamins and prenatal vitamins, and is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, whereas folate from natural food sources is associated with decreased risk. Folic acid is synthetic, not found in nature, whereas green vegetables are loaded with folate. Maintain healthy vitamin D levels. Three-quarters of women who have breast cancer are vitamin D deficient, and maintaining sufficient blood vitamin D levels can decrease risk of breast cancer by up to 45%."
(6) Exercise at least three hours a week and maintain a lean body with little body fat.
"An analysis of 73 different studies concluded that women with high levels of physical activity reduced their risk of breast cancer by 25%. Maintaining a healthy weight is also extremely important, since 17% of breast cancer cases have been attributed to obesity alone."
(7) Do not drink alcohol.
"More than fifty studies have been conducted on the influence of alcohol on breast cancer risk. Even light drinking (one or fewer alcoholic drinks per day) is associated with increased risk; for example, data from the Nurses' Health Study suggested that women consuming 3-6 alcoholic drinks weekly increased their breast cancer risk by 15% compared to non-drinkers. In breast cancer survivors, drinking 3-4 alcoholic beverages per week increased the risk of recurrence by 34%."
(8) Do not smoke.
"Breast carcinogens have been identified in cigarette smoke, and they are known to enter the bloodstream via the lungs and travel to breast tissue, putting smokers at risk."
(9) Limit your exposure to estrogen.
"Cumulative exposure to estrogen is known to be a risk factor for breast cancer. As such, women who have used hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are at risk, and that risk increases with increasing duration of HRT. The use of higher-dose estrogen-containing contraceptives is also associated with increased risk. Women can also be exposed to estrogen via production by excess fat tissue, or environmental sources such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (like BPA and phthalates). Maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding endocrine disruptors when possible helps to limit estrogen exposure. In addition, a vegetable-based, fiber-rich diet reduces circulating estrogen levels, because fiber binds up estrogen in the digestive tract, accelerating its removal from the body."
(10) Have babies and nurse them as long as you can.
"Having children before the age of 24 and having multiple children are both protective against breast cancer. Breastfeeding also contributes to risk reduction, in part by reducing estrogen exposure—longer duration of breastfeeding confers more protection."