Associations of whole-grain, refined-grain, and fruit and vegetable consumption with risks of all-cause mortality and incident coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

Low total mortality and coronary artery disease risks are associated with consistent consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

This study investigated the relationship between the consumption of fruits, vegetables, refined grains, and whole grains and the risk of suffering from ischemic stroke, coronary artery disease (CAD), and all-cause mortality. Using validated food frequency questionnaires, researchers collated and analyzed data on the fruit, vegetable, whole-grain, and refined-grain intakes of 15,792 subjects between the ages of 49-64 years recruited from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort. The relative risks of developing coronary artery disease(CAD) and ischemic stroke and suffering from total mortality were evaluated in all the subjects.

The team of investigators discovered a protective association between high whole grain consumption and total mortality and incident coronary artery disease. In addition, high ingestion of fruits and vegetables was observed to significantly cut down the odds of developing coronary artery disease in African Americans but not in Caucasians. However, generous intake fruits, vegetables, and whole grains was found to have little or no effect on ischemic stroke risk in this study. The findings of this study reveal that consistent consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains may protect individuals against coronary artery disease and all-cause mortality.

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